by bbig4694d at Ayer, 05:06 AM
We should probably start by saying a Brake Master Cylinder technically is not essential. You could use cable-actuated brakes, if you liked, like the cheap items you get on entry-level mountain bikes. On the other hand, to stand the strain of stopping one or two tonnes of metal, plastic and humans over 10-20 years, the cable would have to be massive.
There are more practical solutions, chief among which are hydraulics. The fact that liquid does not compress makes it perfect for transferring force from one part of a system to another. When it comes to the brakes in your car, the master cylinder is the key component in making that happen.

Picture a brake pedal in your mind. Delve into the relative darkness of that imaginary footwell and push that pedal with your mind foot. In most cars the pedal motion directly pushes a rod (known, funnily enough, as a pushrod) into one end of a sealed Brake Wheel Cylinder filled with fluid, two pistons to displace the fluid, and springs to push back against the main force and return the brake pedal to its resting position when released.
Importantly, there are two exits from this tube. One leads to two diagonally-opposed wheels, while the other leads to the others. The two-line layout is a safety feature that ensures that even if a line should leak, you can still stop – albeit more slowly, with one wheel on each side and each end doing the job.

Let’s assume normal operation. Pressing the brake pedal pushes the two pistons, each sprung separately in a linear piston-spring-piston-spring layout, into the fluid, pushing the liquid down the lines into what are called slave cylinders; usually situated on brake calipers themselves. The slave cylinders then push the friction material onto the rotor.
Above the Clutch Master Cylinder, which is normally horizontal, is a vertical fluid reservoir. Its job is to make sure no (compressible) air gets into the system by retaining enough spare fluid volume to keep the system fully fed at all times and in all phases of its operation.

When the pedal is pressed, the piston in the Clutch Wheel Cylinder is pushed in forcing hydraulic fluid from the master cylinder through the tube and hose to the slave cylinder (on the left). The fluid pushes the slave cylinder piston toward the open end of the cylinder pushing the pushrod that connects to the lever on the clutch-operating shaft that in turn releases the clutch.

Manual transmissions are far from dead on the street, but late-model, overdrive six-speeds often demand a late-model hydraulic clutch release system as opposed to a mechanical system. This story will look at some of the basics for hydraulic clutch actuation. The system—similar to a car's hydraulic braking system—uses a hydraulic master cylinder to create line pressure plumbed (usually) to an internal Hydraulic Clutch Bearing positioned on the transmission's input shaft.
Why would you want to convert to a hydraulic clutch assembly? Mechanical clutch systems can be a troublesome conversion in non-stock engine swap applications like slipping an LS engine into a Chevelle, Camaro, or early Nova. LS engines were never fitted with a provision for a mechanical Z-bar linkage mount so a bracket must be fitted or fabricated and the linkage modified to compensate for the difference created by the LS engine's repositioned flywheel mounting surface. Other headaches that hydraulic actuation solves include header clearance issues and a reduction in pedal effort, making the driving experience more pleasant.

What Is A Brake Hose?
Brake Hose is a vital brake component responsible for delivering brake fluid from your vehicle’s master cylinder to the wheel cylinder (in drum brakes) or brake caliper (in disc brakes).
But wait.
Brake fluid is delivered through brake lines, right?
So, does that mean a brake line and a brake hose are the same?
Not exactly.
They’re similar in that both the brake line and the brake hose act as conduits to transport brake fluid from the master cylinder.
However, they’re designed for different use cases.
by glamblack21 at 10-17-2021, 06:53 PM
Busco amistad leal,sincera y generosa vivo en Medellín Colombia 34 años.
by dubpadcer at 10-15-2021, 04:01 AM

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by Chris livan at 10-10-2021, 07:09 AM
Busco mi media naranja
by EviOrtiz at 10-07-2021, 11:57 AM
Hola, soy una chica hondureña, necesito los papeles urgentes. Busco a alguien para casarme, pago dinero a cambio de favor. Muchas grasias
by DAVIDYUSTE at 09-29-2021, 02:14 PM
by Oscarmadrid at 09-16-2021, 04:45 AM
Hola buenas noches.
Mi nombre es Oscar, soy un chico divertido, positivo, muy activo y me gustaría conocer una chica a la que le apetezca salir, divertirnos, reír y todo aquello que surja. Si te apetece no te decepcionará.
Muchas gracias
by jjwko565s at 09-13-2021, 07:48 AM
What are antioxidants?
Antioxidants are molecules that fight free radicals in the body. Free radicals are compounds that can cause harm if they are too high in your body. They are related to a variety of diseases, including diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Your body has its own antioxidant defense system to control free radicals.
However, antioxidants ingredients are also present in foods, especially in fruits, vegetables and other whole plant foods. Several vitamins, such as vitamins E and C, are effective antioxidants. Antioxidant preservatives also play a vital role in food production by extending shelf life.

How do free radicals work
Free radicals are constantly forming in your body. Without antioxidants, free radicals can quickly cause serious damage and eventually death. However, free radicals also have important functions vital to health. For example, your immune cells use free radicals to fight infection. Therefore, your body needs to maintain a certain balance between free radicals and antioxidants. When the number of free radicals exceeds that of antioxidants, it leads to a state called oxidative stress.
Prolonged oxidative stress can damage your DNA and other important molecules in your body. Sometimes it even leads to cell death. DNA damage increases the risk of cancer, and some scientists speculate that it plays a key role in aging. Long-term oxidative stress can lead to an increased risk of negative health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer.

While COVID accelerated the trend of adding Immunity Enhancement Ingredients to processed food, it is not exactly a new concept. Products with such characteristics—think probiotic yogurt products and gummy bears spiked with zinc and echinacea—have been growing in popularity for years. And food processors have grown in their understanding of how their products can improve the immune system.

Cnidium is a native Chinese plant that has also been identified in the US in Oregon. Cnidium is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that has been used for thousands of years, especially for dermatological conditions. It has been a common ingredient in Chinese lotions, creams, and ointments. A pro-erectile herb, Cindium monnieri extract and its main bioactive known as osthole appear to have mechanisms similar to Viagra in penile tissue and the hippocampus. The usable parts of cnidium are the fruit, seed, and whole plant. Active properties of cnidium are the coumarin derivatives including:

  • Osthol

  • Imperatorin

  • Isopimpinellin

  • Xanthotoxin

  • Bergapten
Additional coumarins have also been identified including cnidimonal, cnidimarin, and others. Cnidium is used orally for increasing sexual performance and libido, erectile dysfunction, infertility, body building, increasing energy, cancer, osteoporosis, and fungal and bacterial infections. Cnidium is used topically for pruritus, rashes, eczema, and ringworm.

Monk fruit is also called Luo Han Guo or swingle. It looks like a small gourd, and it grows on a vine.
Monk fruit is native to regions of Southeast Asia, including some parts of Thailand and China. Buddhist monks in the 13th century were the first to cultivate the fruit, which is the reason for its name.
Fresh monk fruit spoils rather quickly. Traditionally, people used dried monk fruit in herbal medicines.
Today, monk fruit is the most popular natural sweetener ingredients. The fruit extract contains substances called mogrosides, which are intensely sweet.
According to the International Food Information Council Foundation, monk fruit is around 150–200 times sweeter than sugar. Some manufacturers mix the extract with different sugars to balance out the intensity.
A variety of monk fruit sweeteners are available to purchase online.

Monk fruit pros
A monk fruit sweetener has several benefits when compared with sugar:

  • Zero calories. Monk fruit extract contains no calories, which is helpful for people on diets that restrict a person’s caloric intake.

  • Zero carbohydrates. The extract also contains no carbohydrates, which may make it ideal for people on low-carb or keto diets.

  • Zero sugar. There is no sugar in pure monk fruit extract, which means that consuming it will not affect blood sugar levels.

  • No harmful side effects. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)Trusted Source considers monk fruit sweeteners to be generally regarded as safe. There appears to be no evidence that monk fruit sweeteners cause harmful side effects.

  • Available in multiple forms. Monk fruit sweeteners are marketed as granules, powders, and liquids. Some products may be easy to carry and use throughout the day.
Nutraceutical ingredients find a wide variety of applications, such as functional food & beverages, animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the inclusion of nutraceutical ingredients in food & beverage products, feed products, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products results in an increase in the prices of these end products. This, in turn, leads to lower adoption of such products, thereby stunting market growth. Over the past few years, there has been an increase in the demand for healthy alternatives of consumables as consumers have become increasingly conscious about the correct diet. Nutraceutical ingredients, when added to any kind of food & beverage product, result in the formation of functional food & beverages, which, in some way, impart a health benefit.
by ttois155ssa at 09-08-2021, 06:44 AM
Wound Dressings
Wound, whether it is a minor cut or a major incision, it is important to care for it properly, part of this process includes wound dressing. Dressing is designed to be in contact with the wound, which is different from a bandage that holds the dressing in place. Historically, wet-to-dry dressings have been used extensively for wounds requiring debridement. In 1600 BC, Linen strips soaked in oil or grease covered with plasters was used to occlude wounds. Clay tablets were used for the treatment of wounds by Mesopotamian origin from about 2500 BCE. They cleaned wounds with water or milk prior to dressing with honey or resin. Wine or vinegar usage for cleaning the wounds with honey, oil and wine as further treatment was followed by Hippocrates of ancient Greece in 460- 370 BCE. They used wool boiled in water or wine as a bandage. There was a major breakthrough in the antiseptic technique during the 19th century, antibiotics were introduced to control infections and decrease mortality. Modern wound dressing arrival was in 20th century.

When the wound is closed with dressing, such as transparent film dressing, they are continuously exposed to proteinases, chemotactic, complement & growth factors, which is lost in the wound exposed. So during late 20th century, production of occlusive dressing began to protect and provide moist environment to wound. These dressings helps in faster re-epithelialization, collagen synthesis, promotes angiogenesis by creating hypoxia to the wound bed and decreases wound bed pH which leads to decrease in the wound infection. Woven absorbent cotton gauze was used in 1891. Until the mid 1900’s, it was firmly believed that wounds healed more quickly if kept dry and uncovered whereas ‘closed wounds heal more quickly than open wound’ written in an Egyptian medical text -Edwin smith surgical papyrus in 1615 BC. Oscar Gilje in 1948 describes moist chamber effect for healing ulcers. In the mid 1980’s, the first modern wound dressing were introduced which delivered important characteristics providing moisture and absorbing fluids (e.g. polyurethane foams, hydrocolloids, iodine-containing gels). During the mid 1990’s, synthetic wound dressings expanded into various group of products which includes hydrogels, hydrocolloids, alginates, synthetic foam dressing, silicone meshes, tissue adhesives, vapor-permeable adhesive films and silver/collagen containing dressing.

Traditional wound dressing
Traditional wound dressing products including gauze, lint, plasters, bandages (natural or synthetic) and cotton wool are dry and used as primary or secondary dressings for protecting the wound from contaminations. Gauze dressings made out of woven and non woven fibres of cotton, rayon, polyesters afford some sort of protection against bacterial infection. Some sterile gauze pads are used for absorbing exudates and fluid in an open wound with the help of fibres in these dressings. These dressings require frequent changing to protect from maceration of healthy tissues. Gauze dressings are less cost effective. Due to excessive wound drainage, dressings, including foam dressing, become moistened and tend to become adherent to the wound making it painful when removing. Bandages made out of natural cotton wool and cellulose or synthetic bandages made out of polyamide materials perform different functions. For instance, cotton bandages are used for retention of light dressings with non woven dressing, high compression bandages and short stretch compression bandages provide sustained compression in case of venous ulcers. Xeroform™ (non-occlusive dressing) is petrolatum gauze with 3% of Bismuth tribromophenate used for non-exudating to slight exudating wounds. Tulle dressings such as Bactigras, Jelonet, Paratulle are some examples of tulle dressings commercially available as impregnated dressings with paraffin and suitable for superficial clean wound. Generally traditional dressings are indicated for the clean and dry wounds with mild exudate levels or used as secondary dressings. Since traditional dressings fail to provide moist environment to the wound they have been replaced by modern dressings with more advanced formulations.

Modern and advanced wound dressing
Modern wound dressing have been developed to facilitate the function of the wound rather than just to cover it. These dressings are focused to keep the wound from dehydration and promote healing. Based on the cause and type of wound, numerous products are available in the market, making the selection a very difficult task. Modern wound dressings, transparent dressing with absorbent pad, are usually based on synthetic polymers and are classified as passive, interactive and bioactive products. Passive products are non-occlusive, such as gauze and tulle dressings, used to cover the wound to restore its function underneath. Interactive dressings are semi-occlusive or occlusive, available in the forms of films, foam, hydrogel and hydrocolloids. These dressings act as a barrier against penetration of bacteria to the wound environment.

What uses does rubbing alcohol have?

Rubbing alcohol is a common household chemical. It has several potential uses in personal care, as well as in general household cleaning.

However, the incorrect use of rubbing alcohol can cause serious side effects, including skin irritation and poisoning.

In this article, we list some common uses for rubbing alcohol. We also outline some situations in which a person should avoid using this chemical.

Common uses for rubbing alcohol, or alcohol pad, include:

1. Disinfecting tick bites
People can use tweezers to remove a tick carefully from the skin. Following its removal, they can use rubbing alcohol to disinfect the bite. They should apply rubbing alcohol to a cotton swab and dab it onto the area where the tick had attached itself.

2. Caring for pierced ears
According to the American Academy of Dermatology (AAD), people can use rubbing alcohol to help clean the skin around new ear piercings. To do this, a person should dip a cotton ball or pad into the rubbing alcohol. They should then gently wipe it around the piercing on the front and back of the ear.

People should clean the piercing twice a day to help prevent bacterial infections and scabbing.

It is important to note that some experts disagree with this advice, recommending that people avoid using rubbing alcohol because it might slow the healing process.

3. Reducing body odor
Rubbing alcohol can help kill odor-causing bacteria, and it can be used in woundcare dressing, or hydrocolloid dressing. A person can apply rubbing alcohol under the armpits to help eliminate body odors.

However, they should avoid applying rubbing alcohol soon after shaving, as this will cause stinging.

4. Deodorizing shoes
Shoes can develop a strong odor, particularly if a person wears them while exercising or doing other physical activity. Spraying the insoles of the shoes with rubbing alcohol can help eliminate odor-causing bacteria.

A person should fill a spray bottle with rubbing alcohol and use this to spray the insides of the shoes. Leaving the shoes in the sun will help dry them out.

5. Creating homemade room deodorizer
It is possible to make a room deodorizer by pouring rubbing alcohol into a spray bottle and adding a few drops of an essential oil. A person can then spray the mixture around the room to help mask unpleasant odors.

6. Creating homemade ice packs
By mixing water and rubbing alcohol, a person can create a reusable and malleable homemade ice pack. They can follow these steps:

Fill a sealable freezer bag with 2 cups of water and 1 cup of 70% rubbing alcohol.
Push as much air out as possible, and seal the bag.
Place the filled bag inside another freezer bag, pushing out as much air as possible before sealing it.
Freeze for several hours.
Once the ice pack is ready, people can apply it to sore muscles or joints to relieve pain and inflammation.

7. Cleaning and disinfecting hard surfaces
Rubbing alcohol can help clean and disinfect hard surfaces. It is effective against most, but not all, pathogens.

The main ingredient in rubbing alcohol is isopropyl alcohol (IA). Most rubbing alcohols contain about 70% IA, but the amount can range from 60% to 99%, depending on the product.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source, alcohol solutions are most effective at concentrations of 60–90%. People should avoid using diluted solutions that have a concentration of 50% or below, as these will be less effective in killing pathogens.

8. Disinfecting sponges and cloths
Rubbing alcohol can also help disinfect household items, such as bathroom or kitchen sponges or cleaning cloths.

A person should pour some rubbing alcohol onto the sponge or cloth and let it soak for several minutes or hours inside a sealable container.

9. Cleaning and sanitizing electronic devices
Alcohol evaporates quickly and can kill pathogens on phones, laptops, tablets, and other devices. It is best to use a rubbing alcohol with 99% IA for electronics.

A person should apply a small amount of the rubbing alcohol to a paper towel or cloth and gently wipe it across the electronic device.

This chemical can also help remove water from an electronic device if a person accidentally drops it into water or spills some water on it. If the device was switched off at the time, removing water with the rubbing alcohol should recover it.
by rrjis2565a at 09-07-2021, 05:26 AM
What are galvanized pipes?

Galvanized pipes are steel pipes that have been dipped in a protective zinc coating to prevent corrosion and rust. Galvanized steel pipe was commonly installed in homes built before 1960. When it was invented, galvanized pipe was an alternative to lead pipe for water supply lines. Today, however, we have learned that decades of exposure to water will cause galvanized pipes to corrode and rust on the inside.

What do galvanized pipes look like?

When first installed, galvanized pipes looks similar to a nickel in color. But as it ages, galvanized pipe may appear much duller, lighter, or darker, depending on its environment. We’ve also seen homes where the water pipes have been painted, so it can be difficult to tell at first glance.

How can I tell if I have galvanized pipes?

If you can’t tell by looking at your pipes, there is a quick test to tell if they are galvanized. Simply grab a flat head screwdriver and a strong magnet. Start by finding your water line and scratch the outside of the welded steel pipe with the screwdriver. Compare your results:


The scratched area will look like a copper penny.
A magnet will NOT stick to it.

The scratched area will appear ivory or white in color.
A magnet will NOT stick to it

Galvanized steel
The scratched area will have a silver-gray color.
A strong magnet will stick to it.

The scratched area will have a dull silver-gray color, and the metal will usually be soft and easy to scratch. A magnet will NOT stick to it. Lead LSAW welded pipes are easy to bend and may be misshapen. If you have lead pipes, we recommend replacement if at all possible.

Be sure to scratch test your pipes in multiple areas. It is not uncommon to have more than one type of piping on your water line.

Do galvanized pipes contain lead?

The galvanized pipes installed on water lines between 1880 and 1960 were dipped in molten, naturally occurring zinc. Naturally occurring zinc is impure, so these pipes, such as boiler pipefluid pipecoating steel pipe, were bathed in zinc that also contained lead and other impurities. The zinc coating elongated the life of the steel pipes, but added small amount of lead and other substances that could potentially harm inhabitants.

Additionally, if your galvanized pipes were ever connected to lead plumbing (including service lines) there is more cause for concern. The corrosion inside galvanized steel pipes could have trapped small pieces of the lead. Even if the lead piping was removed years ago, the galvanized steel pipes could still periodically release the trapped lead into the water flow. Chicago didn’t stop using lead pipes for service lines until 1986, and an estimated 400,000 lead service lines are still in use in Chicago alone.

The only way to ensure that lead is not mobilized from plumbing to tap in a given home is to fully replace the galvanized plumbing and any lead service lines.

What other problems can galvanized pipes cause?

Low Water Pressure
Due to the restriction of the line, corrosion in galvanized pipes can cause lower water pressure throughout your home.

Uneven Distribution of Water
If some of your taps have low water pressure, but others don’t, this could be a symptom of galvanized pipes. Corrosion can build up unevenly. Also, part of the galvanized steel piling pipe line could have been replaced in your home, but not everywhere.

Discoloration of Water
Galvanized SSAW welded pipes can release iron and cause discoloration. A clear indicator of this is a brown stain on a porcelain sink.

Given enough time, galvanized pipes will rust through and cause more damage to your home.
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